Tag Archive: SCADA


Boeing 787


Way back in 2008 there were a number of stories floating around that the new Boeing 787, the first production airframe of which was delivered this week, had a serious security weakness. It turns out that Boeing, in their infinite wisdom, had decided to not segregate the flight control systems from the seat-back entertainment systems and would, instead, firewall them from each other.

I’ve been searching online but can’t find any up-to-date information whether this architecture was changed. Some good articles on this came from Wired and Bruce Schneier’s blog. Wikipedia’s 787 entry includes the following:

The airplane’s control, navigation, and communication systems are networked with the passenger cabin’s in-flight internet systems.In January 2008, Boeing responded to reports about FAA concerns regarding the protection of the 787’s computer networks from possible intentional or unintentional passenger access by stating that various hardware and software solutions are employed to protect the airplane systems. These included air gaps for the physical separation of the networks, and firewalls for their software separation. These measures prevent data transfer from the passenger internet system to the maintenance or navigation systems.

The reference to firewalls and air gaps leads me to suspect that these systems are not fully segregated. If this is the case, I really hope that they’ve had some seriously good information security advice.Process control systems, and this is a process control system of sorts, aren’t always as well implemented as they could be. Where there is a safety-critical element, air gaps or data diodes are the only ways to go.

Designing out the vulnerabilities has to be better than retrofitting security afterwards.

I’d welcome comments from anyone, especially those who know more about the actual implementation.

Update: I’ve added another post about this here.

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Stuxnet presentation


I have finally got around to uploading the PowerPoint presentation that I gave at the ISSA Ireland Conference in Dublin at the beginning of the month. Sorry it took so long!

You can get it here.

STUXNET: Updated


Just a short post to report that Iran has admitted that some malicious software did, in fact, interfere with its uranium enrichment programme, which I would assume implies STUXNET. If it hadn’t spread so widely, it’s debatable whether it would have been noticed.

I have more about this in my previous post.


A news item that keeps bubbling up in the information security world is about STUXNET, a malicious piece of software that was originally said to target nuclear reactors in Iran. This might seem a bit odd, as most malicious software is pretty random, infecting anything it comes across. This malware seems to have had a very particular purpose.

It has been well known since its discovery that STUXNET targeted SCADA (Supervisor Control and Data Acquisition) systems, which are used in industrial process control environments, essentially providing electro-mechanical control over a logical network, be that the Internet or via a dial-up modem. SCADA systems are used all over the place, controlling sluice gates, traffic lights and in nuclear reactors. In general, these systems are kept as far away from public networks as possible, to prevent the infection of the networks they reside on, as the results can often be catastrophic.

However, an article in The Register, referencing a Symantec blog, detailed that this malware was even more specifically targeted. In summary, the article explains how STUXNET was aimed at frequency converter drives made by Fararo Paya of Iran and Vacon of Finland, both, presumably, used in the Iranian nuclear programme. Not only that, but only those drives that operate at very high speeds, between 807 Hz and 1210 Hz. It also had the capability to spread via USB sticks, thereby not being dependent on an accessible process control network.

The code reveals that the malware would change the output of the drives, intermittently, over a period of months, thereby disrupting whatever they were controlling, albeit subtly. Interestingly, this type of equipment has export restrictions placed on it by the US as they can be used in the centrifuges that enrich uranium.

One has to assume that the purpose of the malware was to sabotage the Iranian uranium enrichment programme in such a way as to not be discovered.

The reason it got discovered was that it was too successful. Tens of thousands of systems across the world have been infected by STUXNET, notably in Indonesia.

Given the level of targeting and pre-requisite knowledge of uranium enrichment, was this written by the regular clan of virus writers, whose main aim is quick profit? Unlikely.

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